Lyon

   The third-largest city in France, after paris and Marseille, Lyon has a metropolitan area second in size and economic importance only to Paris. At the confluence of the rhône and saône Rivers, Lyon has diverse manufactures. Nearby, in Saint-Fons and Feyzin, are large petroleum refineries. There are important treatment and research hospitals also. The University of Lyon (1808) is based on three extensive campuses around the city. The center of Lyon and the Fourvière quarter have several interesting buildings and monuments, including the romanesque basilica of Saint-Martin-d'Ainay (12th century), the cathedral of Saint-Jean (12th century), the church of Saint-Nizier (14th century), the church of Saint-Bruno (16th century), the church of Saint-Bonaventure (14th-15th century), and the basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière (19th century). The Hôtel-Dieu (17th century) has a museum. old Lyon has numerous streets and Renaissance mansions on the east bank of the Rhône; there is the Musée Historique des Tissus (with the world's largest collection of textiles), and the Museum of Contemporary Art, which opened in 1995. Lyon has the oldest stock exchange in France, and the city is also considered a center of French gastronomy. In 1981, Lyon was the first city to be connected to Paris by the high-speed "train à grande vitesse" (TGV). Modern highways connect Lyon with major cities in France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and Spain. Lyon also has two airports. Lyon was founded in 43 b.c. as the Roman colony of Lugdunum and became the major city of ancient Gaul by the 2nd century a.d. It also was a principal residence of some Roman emperors, who erected various monuments there, and was the birthplace of Claudius and Caracalla. Christianity was introduced into Gaul at Lyon, which for centuries was a leading religious center ruled by archbishops. In the 9th century, Lyon was part of Burgundy, then passed to the Holy Roman Empire (1032). In 1312, it again became part of France and was granted a royal charter. By the 15th century, at the crossroads between northern and southern France, it became a center of trade and famous for its silk industry. Four annual trade fairs were held there. The city also became a center of European business. By the 16th and 17th centuries, the silk industry dominated the city's economy. In 1793, the troops of the Convention (see revolution of 1789) attacked the city as it was a center of resistance by supporters of a federal system during the Revolution. Lyon suffered a severe repression from the revolutionary forces and government, but napoléon i revived and redeveloped the city when he came to power. During the 19th century, parallel to a renewed economic development, a number of social problems arose. The silk workers, suffering from horrendous conditions, revolted in 1831 and 1834. During world warii (1939-45), Lyon was an important center of the resistance. In 1957, the metropolitan area of Lyon was established, and today Lyon is the home to many immigrants from former French colonies in North Africa.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

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  • Lyon [1] — Lyon (spr. Liong), 1) Arrondissement im französischen Departement Rhône, 24,16 QM., 12 Cantone u. 410,000 Ew.; 2) (lat. Lugdunum, im Mittelalter Leona), Hauptstadt desselben u. des Departements, an der Saône u. Rhône; die zweite Stadt Frankreichs …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

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  • Lyon — es la segunda ciudad en tamaño de Francia (después de París). Está situada en la unión de los ríos Ródano y Saona. Sus barrios antiguos de tipo renacimiento forman parte del patrimonio mundial de la Unesco. Conecta a otras ciudades (Paris,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Lyon — 1. La forma tradicional León, usada en épocas pasadas para nombrar esta ciudad francesa a menudo con el especificador de Francia , ha sido sustituida en el uso actual por el original francés Lyon, que tiene la ventaja de designar un solo lugar,… …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • Lyon — Lyon …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

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